Early Modern Low Countries https://emlc-journal.org/ <p><em>Early Modern Low Countries</em> (EMLC) is a leading multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed, open access journal dedicated to the study of the early modern Low Countries. We publish state-of-the-art scholarship on any aspect of the turbulent history of this region between 1500 and 1830, from a variety of perspectives.</p> <p>The editorial board welcomes original research manuscripts of 8,000 words. We particularly invite early career scholars to submit their work. <em>EMLC</em> offers additional support throughout the editorial process, including feedback from the editors and professional copy-editing by our in-house English language editor. All submissions are reviewed by the editors within two months, and if deemed suitable undergo a double-blind peer-review process. We typically return the peer review reports within six months of submission.</p> <p><em>EMLC</em> appears in two annual installments. The journal has its origins in a cooperation between two former journals on the Low Countries, <em>De Zeventiende Eeuw</em> and <em>De Achttiende Eeuw</em>. You can visit the archives of <em>DZE </em><a href="http://www.dbnl.org/titels/tijdschriften/tijdschrift.php?id=_zev001zeve01">here</a> and those of <em>DAE</em> <a href="http://www.dbnl.org/titels/tijdschriften/tijdschrift.php?id=_doc003docu01">here</a>.</p> Stichting Early Modern Low Countries en-US Early Modern Low Countries 2543-1587 <p>Authors who publish with <em>EMLC</em> agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> (CC BY 4.0) or a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a> (CC BY-NC 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> <p>Authors are explicitly encouraged to deposit their article in their institutional repository.</p> Introduction: Divided by Death? Staging Mortality in the Early Modern Low Countries https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10005 <p>This special issue examines the multifaceted phenomenon of death in the early modern Low Countries. When war, revolt, and disease ravaged the Netherlands, the experience of death came to be increasingly materialised in vanitas art, funeral sermons, <em>ars moriendi</em> prints, mourning poetry, deathbed psalms, <em>memento mori</em> pendants, grave monuments, <em>épitaphiers</em>, and commemoration masses. This collection of interdisciplinary essays brings historical, art historical, and literary perspectives to bear on the complex cultural and anthropological dimensions of death in past societies. It argues that the sensing and staging of mortality reconfigured confessional and political repertoires, alternately making and breaking communities in the delta of Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt. As such, death’s ‘omnipresence’ within the context of ongoing war and religious polarization contributed to the confessional and political reconfiguration of the early modern Low Countries.</p> Isabel Casteels Louise Deschryver Violet Soen Copyright (c) 2021 Isabel Casteels, Louise Deschryver, Violet Soen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 1–16 1–16 10.51750/emlc10005 Smelling Disease and Death in the Antwerp Church of Our Lady, c. 1450-1559 https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10006 <p>Early modern societies were pervaded by smells and odours, but few traces have survived that offer a glimpse of the olfactory experience. This essay reconstructs this lost early modern ‘smellscape’, focusing on the smell of disease and death in the late medieval Antwerp Church of Our Lady (c. 1450-1559). Bustling cathedrals and parish churches could be a minefield of life-threatening odours, as there was a strong interaction between externally perceived body odour and a person’s inner sweetness. Through devotional objects and liturgical rituals, however, it was possible to protect oneself from the stench of both living and dead parishioners. Exemplary markers for the shared discourse of smell on a medical and spiritual level were aromatic prayer beads and purifying incense.</p> Wendy Wauters Copyright (c) 2021 Wendy Wauters https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 17–39 17–39 10.51750/emlc10006 Ancestral Monuments, Iconoclasm, and Memorial Culture in the Sixteenth-Century Low Countries https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10007 <p>This contribution assesses the impact of the Protestant Reformation and iconoclasm on the memorial culture of tombs, epitaphs, and rituals in the Low Countries (c. 1520-1585), and analyses the consequences these events had on ancestral remembrance. Demonstrating how Protestant critiques and iconoclastic attacks fundamentally endangered the archival function of churches, it argues that this imminent threat to memory provoked a heightened awareness of the ancestral past in the later sixteenth century. Most significantly, it shows that this precarious situation led to the genesis of a new type of commemorative manuscript, the <em>épitaphier</em>, in which heraldic, genealogical, and other information on various types of memorial monuments in churches was recorded. In tracing the production and dissemination of these <em>épitaphiers</em>, the article casts new light on the pan-European heraldic and ‘genealogical craze’ in this period: while English scholars have emphasized social dynamics as explanation, this essay puts forward the religious debates as a hitherto neglected factor, and demonstrates how the two interlocked.</p> Ruben Suykerbuyk Copyright (c) 2021 Ruben Suykerbuyk https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 40–74 40–74 10.51750/emlc10007 Drownings in the Dark: The Politics of Secret Executions in Antwerp, 1557-1565 https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10008 <p>Between 1557 and 1565, the Antwerp city council carried out almost all of its executions of religious dissidents by drowning them in secret. This presents a puzzle to current historiography, as historians of capital punishment have identified the public and spectacular nature of early modern executions as their defining elements. To understand these secret executions, this article traces contemporary notions of secrecy and openness using a wide range of sources, including chronicles, martyrologies, correspondences, and bailiff accounts. It argues that in this period, the concept of secrecy had more to do with closing off space than with hiding knowledge, and that both hiding and showing were important strategies in the performing of executions. The authorities did not control these; rather, by negotiating the dynamics of hiding and showing executions, the central authorities, local magistrates, and the religious groups whose members were being executed constructed their meaning and effect. As such, the case of the secret executions in Antwerp nuances the current paradigm of executions as public events orchestrated by authorities to display sovereign power.</p> Isabel Casteels Copyright (c) 2021 Isabel Casteels https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 75–97 75–97 10.51750/emlc10008 Eternal Memory Mirrors’: Seventeenth-century Dutch Newsprints of Political Executions https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10009 <p>Map and newsprint publishers Claes Jansz. Visscher and Herman Allertsz. developed a new kind of wall print in the first decade of the seventeenth century that depicted contemporary political executions and which served as ‘eternal memory mirror[s]’. These prints evince the high value contemporaries placed on proportionate justice: the desire for visual affirmation that the punishment fit the crime. Visscher was keen to put a good face on things, downplaying disorganization, unflattering or unfortunate aspects of executions, and he emphasized events that suggested divine approval. The success of his early execution prints had a profound impact on the format and variety of Visscher’s later military newsprints. The large scale, sophisticated organization of text and image, and superior aesthetic qualities – all strategies borrowed from monumental wall maps – enhanced the commercial and polemical potential of his execution imagery. The article first considers Visscher’s early professional relationships and training in cartographic circles. Then, it analyses his multi-plate compositions and the relationship between image and text in his execution prints from 1619 and 1623, which were related to the Truce Conflicts and fights between Remonstrants and Counter-Remonstrants. Finally, the article considers the implications of viewing execution imagery on the wall.</p> Maureen Warren Copyright (c) 2021 Maureen Warren https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 98–133 98–133 10.51750/emlc10009 Grief and Emotional Suffering in the Elegiac Poems by Jeremias de Decker and Michiel de Swaen, c. 1650-1700 https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10010 <p>Both Protestantism and Catholicism of the seventeenth century experienced the influence of theology that stressed the importance of inner devotion, which went hand in hand with a strong emphasis on the emotional experience of faith. In dealing with death, however, the discourse of comfort was still dominant, designed to suppress the pain of loss rather than bringing that feeling to the fore. This ‘emotional regime’ also affected funeral elegiac poems in which feelings of joy and delight about the deceased’s heavenly destination dominate the initial period of grief. This article aims to understand whether these emotional regimes induced a form of emotional suffering and, if so, to what extent this was visible in contemporary funerary poetry: did, for example, it stick to grief and the inner pain of loss instead of suppressing it? &nbsp;The essay focuses on the elegiac poems by Jeremias de Decker (1609-1660) in the Dutch Republic and by Michiel de Swaen (1654-1707) in French Flanders. It examines the striking differences between the elegies written after the passing away of a public person, such as befriended priests and preachers, and the poems about a death in the private sphere in which poetry functioned more as a means of emotional refuge.</p> Cornelis van der Haven Copyright (c) 2021 Cornelis Van der Haven https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 134–152 134–152 10.51750/emlc10010 Afterword https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10019 <p>Reflections on the special issue 'Divided by Death? Staging Mortality in the Early Modern Low Countries'.</p> Thomas W. Laqueur Copyright (c) 2021 Thomas W. Laqueur https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 153–157 153–157 10.51750/emlc10019 Rienk Vermij, Thinking on Earthquakes in Early Modern Europe. Firm Beliefs on Shaky Grounds https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10011 Marieke van Egeraat Copyright (c) 2021 Marieke Van Egeraat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 158–161 158–161 10.51750/emlc10011 Jan de Vries, The Price of Bread. Regulating the Market in the Dutch Republic https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10012 Alberto Feenstra Copyright (c) 2021 Alberto Feenstra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 162–164 162–164 10.51750/emlc10012 Dirk van Miert, The Emancipation of Biblical Philology in the Dutch Republic, 1590-1670; Jetze Touber, Spinoza and Biblical Philology in the Dutch Republic, 1660-1710 https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10013 Russ Leo Copyright (c) 2021 Russ Leo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 165–171 165–171 10.51750/emlc10013 Silke Muylaert, Shaping the Stranger Churches. Migrants in England and the Troubles in the Netherlands, 1547-1585 https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10014 Guido Marnef Copyright (c) 2021 Guido Marnef https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 172–175 172–175 10.51750/emlc10014 Christopher Joby, The Dutch Language in Japan (1600-1900). A Cultural and Sociolinguistic Study of Dutch as a Contact Language in Tokugawa and Meiji Japan https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10015 Lorenzo Nespoli Copyright (c) 2021 Lorenzo Nespoli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 176–179 176–179 10.51750/emlc10015 Claudia Swan, Rarities of These Lands. Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Dutch Republic https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10016 Maarten Prak Copyright (c) 2021 Maarten Prak https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 180–182 180–182 10.51750/emlc10016 Jan Blanc (ed.), Dutch Golden Age(s). The Shaping of a Cultural Community https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10017 Tom van der Molen Copyright (c) 2021 Tom van der Molen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 183–186 183–186 10.51750/emlc10017 Adam Clulow, Amboina, 1623. Fear and Conspiracy on the Edge of Empire; Pieter C. Emmer and Jos J.L. Gommans, The Dutch Overseas Empire, 1600-1800 https://emlc-journal.org/article/view/10018 Arthur Weststeijn Copyright (c) 2021 Arthur Weststeijn https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 5 1 187–191 187–191 10.51750/emlc10018